Nouns: 3~4 Moras (äž­é«˜ćž‹)

snphan | Oct. 31, 2021, 8:33 p.m.

Hello again!

It's Monday again and you know what that means, another post!

This time, we will be tackling how to handle the compound nouns with a last noun unit of 3-4 moras and having the äž­é«˜ćž‹ pattern. If you did the quiz in the last post then you probably ran into the word æ—„æœŹèȘžèƒœćŠ›è©Šéš“ăƒ»ă«ă»ă‚“ă”ăźă†ă‚Šă‚‡ăă—ă‘ă‚“ which has a pitch number of 101. This happens because the last noun unit è©Šéš“ has a pitch number of 2: it's äž­é«˜ăŸ!  So we can't drop the pitch after the first mora of the last noun unit. Can you guess what the rule is for the äž­é«˜ćž‹ case?

According to Shunyaku, the drop in the compound verb occurs wherever the drop is in the last noun unit2. We'll take a little break from pitch numbers and just look at the moras in the word for now to clarify this concept. è©Šéš“ăƒ»ă—ă‘ă‚“ has a pitch number of 2, so the pitch drops after the け in しけん. Any nouns tacked onto the beginning of しけん will then drop after the け as well according Shunyaku's rule. This means that whether the compound noun is æ—„æœŹèȘžèƒœćŠ›è©Šéš“ăƒ»  ă«ă»ă‚“ă”ăźă†ă‚Šă‚‡ăă—ă‘ă‚“, ć€–éƒšè©Šéš“ăƒ»ăŒă„ă¶ă—ă‘ă‚“, æšĄæ“Źè©Šéš“ăƒ»ă‚‚ăŽă—ă‘ă‚“, ć…„ć­Šè©Šéš“ăƒ»ă«ă‚…ă†ăŒăă—ă‘ă‚“, ćžæł•è©Šéš“ăƒ»ă—ă»ă†ă—ă‘ă‚“, or even ć€§ć­Šć…„è©Šă‚»ăƒłă‚żăƒŒè©Šéš“, the pitch will always drop after the け if è©Šéš“ is the last noun unit. Here are the pitch accent patterns for the words just mentioned:

Word Pitch Accent #
æ—„æœŹ(3)・èȘžăƒ»èƒœćŠ›(1)ăƒ»è©Šéš“(2) ă«ă»ă‚“ă”ăźă†ă‚Šă‚‡ăă—ă‘ă‚“  10
ć€–éƒš(1)ăƒ»è©Šéš“(2) ăŒă„ă¶ă—ă‘ă‚“ 5
æšĄæ“Ź(1)ăƒ»è©Šéš“(2) もぎしけん 4
ć…„ć­Š(0)ăƒ»è©Šéš“(2) ă«ă‚…ă†ăŒăă—ă‘ă‚“ 6
ćžæł•(0)ăƒ»è©Šéš“(2) しほうしけん 5
性歊(0)ăƒ»ć…„è©Š(0)ăƒ»ă‚»ăƒłă‚żăƒŒ(1)ăƒ»è©Šéš“(2) ă ă„ăŒăă«ă‚…ă†ă—ă›ă‚“ăŸăƒŒă—ă‘ă‚“ 13

Let's take a look at the words that end in 物èȘž(3)ăƒ»ă‚‚ăźăŒăŸă‚Š. 物èȘž has a pitch accent of 3, so that means that the drop occurs after が. Irrespective of the number of noun units attached before 物èȘž, the pitch will drop after the が in もぼがたり. This may be a stretch, but let's look at the Monogatari series:

Word Pitch Accent #
挖(2)ăƒ»ç‰©èȘž(3) ばけもぼがたり 5
ćœ(0)ăƒ»ç‰©èȘž(3) ă«ă›ă‚‚ăźăŒăŸă‚Š 5
猫(1)ăƒ»ç‰©èȘž(3) ねこもぼがたり 5
ć‚Ÿăƒ»ç‰©èȘž(3) ă‹ă¶ăă‚‚ăźăŒăŸă‚Š 6
曼(0)ăƒ»ç‰©èȘž(3) おべりもぼがたり 6
éŹŒ(2)ăƒ»ç‰©èȘž(3) ăŠă«ă‚‚ăźăŒăŸă‚Š 5

That's it for today. Hope that helped and see you next time!

1Takoboto | Look up æ—„æœŹèȘžèƒœćŠ›è©Šéš“’. Accessed 31 October 2021.

2Minematsu, Nobuaki & Shu, Shunyaku. “OJAD and Its Practical Use for Teaching/Learning Japanese Prosody,” n.d., 27.